The electron geometry of carbon in a carbonate anion is trigonal planar with a sp2 hybridization and bond angles are >120°. The arrangement of three regions of high electron density gives a trigonal planar electron-pair geometry. There's carbon tribunal planner this oxygen dent, Determine the geometry about each interior atom in each moleculeand draw…, Determine the geometry about each interior atom in each molecule and draw th…, Determine the molecular geometry about each interior atom and draw each mole…, Determine the molecular geometry about each interior atom and draweach m…, Determine the electron and molecular geometries of each molecule. A) 0 lone pairs, linear … The other O atom is bonded to the 2nd and 3rd C atom and has two lone pairs. Foo Tim Chau. The carboxyl (COOH) group is so-named … Journal of Molecular Liquids. This theory basically says that bonding and non-bonding electron pairs of the central atom in a molecule will repel (push away from) each other in three dimensional … Its electron geometry and its molecular geometry are both tetrahedral as in methane. It is because of the central sulfur atom, there exists a bonding of four groups including two of O and two of -OH. 3rd C atom has 4 electrons pairs and no lone pair, so it's molecular geometry is tetrahedral. VESPR stands for valence shell electron pair repulsion. 5 4. Molecular geometry of $\mathrm{O}$ atom: bent. {/eq} ({eq}H_2NCOOH Questions left blank are not counted against you. {/eq} atoms attached to {eq}C Sulfuric acid has tetrahedral geometry. Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). The conventional book, fiction, history, novel, scientific research, as Page 11/27. Send Gift Now, Determine the geometry about each interior atom in each molecule and draw the molecule. 1. Click 'Join' if it's correct. To do so, we first need to draw a Lewis structure for IF 4 +. Okay, So the geometry for this carbon is tetra. c.) NH 2 CO 2 H (H 2 NCOOH both O … DOI: … This is what is predicted by VSEPR Theory. {eq}NH_2CO_2H Furthermore, it has no lone pair of electrons. McGraw-Hill College, June 1, 1984. It would have electron geometry trigonal planar, and a molecular geometry of Bent. (b) We write the Lewis structure of BCl 3 as: Thus we see that BCl 3 contains three bonds, and there are no lone pairs of electrons on boron. 1. Homework Help. So its electron geometry is tetrahedral but its molecular geometry is bent. Furthermore, the angles are not exactly 120 degrees as in the case of a trigonal planar molecule where the surrounding atoms are all the same. Around the Nitrogen atom, however, the molecular shape is Trigonal Pyramidal (3 bonding, 1 non-bonding pair). Ozone has sp2 hybridization means that it should have a trigonal planar shape. Determine the molecular geometry … Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. The VSEPR notation for these molecules are AX n. "A" represents the central atom and n represents the number of bonds with the central atom. Molecular Geometry Calculator Software Molecular Weight Calculator v.1.0 Molecular Weight Calculator 1.0 is considered as a simple and salutary Microsoft Excel workbook which can be used to calculate the molecular … Determine The Geometry About Each Interior Atom In The Followingmolecules:a) CH3CO2CH3 (H3CCOOCH3 Both O Atoms Attached To Second C)b) NH2CO2H (H2NCOOH Both O Atoms Attached To C) This problem has been solved! Personalized courses, with or without credits. VSEPR Theory: According to the valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) Theory, the electron domains around the central atom determine the shape of a … Molecular geometry is a way of describing the shapes of molecules. SO2 Electron Geometry The electron geometry of SO2 is formed in the shape of a trigonal planner. geometry, or three-dimensional shape of a molecule or polyatomic ion, can be determined using valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (abbreviated VSEPR and pronounced “VES-per”) theory, in which the basic principle is valence electrons around a central atom stay as far apart as possible to In this problem, we’re being asked to determine the molecular geometry of IF 4 +. Below are the valence orbitals ofmaterial. CO2 Molecular Geometry. The presence of unbonded lone-pair electrons gives a different molecular geometry and electron geometry. Electron geometry of O atom: tetrahedral.Molecular geometry of terminal N atoms: trigonal pyramidal. Draw Lewis structures for the molecular formula given. There are many different molecular structures. In chemistry, octahedral molecular geometry describes the shape of compounds with six atoms or groups of atoms or ligands symmetrically arranged around a central atom, defining the vertices of an octahedron.The octahedron has eight faces, hence the prefix octa.The octahedron is one of the Platonic solids, although octahedral … Beside above, what is the molecular geometry of s2o? Study Guides. Although the SiO2 molecule itself is non-polar due to … NH2- is sp3 hybdridised U cn calculate it via bp + lp Or by sn= 1/2(V +M -C +A) How to use the table to predict molecular geometry. Card 12 : final answer for cards 1, molecule showing molecule's geometry, electrons pair and lone pairs. {/eq}). Determine the number of bonding electrons and the... What is the geometry of AsH_3 as predicted by... Use the Vsepr theory to predict and explain the... What is the electron domain for: a) CH_3I. Define coordination geometry, and describe the particular geometry associated with electron-pair repulsion between two, three, four, five, or six identical bonding regions. Molecular geometry is the way atoms are arranged in a molecule.The three-dimensional arrangement determines many properties of that molecule. c. What is the electron geometry … In the given compound, the interior atoms are N, C, and O (bonded to C and H). Consider the molecule NH2CO2H(skeletal structure is H2NCOOH where both 0 atoms are attached to the C.) a. The atoms around C will be arranged in the same plane forming a trigonal planar. The Lewis structure of this compound is shown below. He'd roll his carbon Channel planner This oxygen bent this oxygen Ted, you eagle So geometry for for this and Arjun is tribunal pyramidal. For C, there are three electron groups (1 double bond, 2 single bonds). So electron jia So the molecular geometry for his carbon is tetra. DOI: 10.1016/0166-1280(87)85054-6. Therefore, the Nitrogen atom is part of the Tetrahedral geometry of the Carbon atom, while off the Nitrogen atom, the geometry is Trigonal Planar. {/eq}, both {eq}O For CH3NH2 (methanamine): CH3N forms a tetrahedral shape due to 4 … How to Determine Molecular Geometry – YouTube: This video describes one method for quickly finding the major geometrical shapes for simple molecules. Services, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. The possible electron pair and molecular geometries are. Molecular Physics 1986, 58 (2) , 329-336. B. Молярная масса of NH4Cl is 53. count total # of bonding & nonbonding e- pairs in the val shell of the central atom 3. Click 'Join' if it's correct, By clicking Sign up you accept Numerade's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy, Whoops, there might be a typo in your email. Molecular geometry of $\mathrm{O}$ atom: bent. Card 2 to 6 : Try to explain the following molecule's geometry. Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule. Pay for 5 months, gift an ENTIRE YEAR to someone special! And for this nitrogen is tribunal pyramidal C is three c o oh h three And we add long parallel crumbs. What Is The Molecular Geometry Of The N, C, And O (separately)? Electron geometry of central C atom: trigonal planar.Molecular geometry of terminal C atoms: tetrahedral. The next most repulsive interaction is between a lone pair and a bonding pair. Here's what I get. Valence shell electron-pair repulsion theory (VSEPR theory) enables us to predict the molecular structure, including approximate bond angles around a central atom, of a molecule from an examination of the number of bonds and lone electron pairs in its Lewis structure. Molecular geometry of $\mathrm{N}$ atom: trigonal pyramidal.$\\$b.Electron geometry of terminal C atoms: tetrahedral. The bond angles are 90 or 180°. For O, it has four electron groups around it (2 lone pairs and 2 single bonds). What is the molecular geometry of the N, C, and O (separately)? Draw The Structure Of The Moleculeb. Switch to. The molecular Geometry of any compound is based on the arrangement of atoms, electron pairs, and bonds. VSEPR Notation. There is a π-bond formed between a nonhybridized “C” p-orbital overlapping with an “O” p-orbital. Note: To chose the central atom as the one with the smallest number of valence electrons or if they all have the same number of valence electrons then choose the one in the least amount. They are organised by the number of atoms involved and the angles between the bonds.. Types of molecular geometry The next two carbon atoms share a triple bond, and each has an additional single bond. How to use the table to predict molecular geometry. Get the detailed answer: What is the molecular geometry of ? > We must first draw the Lewis structure of acetic acid. Molecular geometry of $\mathrm{O}$ atom: bent. From Lewis structure it is shown that the Nitrogen atom also contains a lone pair of electron. Determine the geometry of each interior atom in the molecule and sketch the molecule (the skeletal structure is indicated in parentheses). Molecular Geometries The VSEPR theory describes five main shapes of simple molecules: linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, and octahedral. CH3NH2 (H3CNH2)b. CH3CO2CH3 (H3CCOOCH3 both O atoms attached to second C)c. NH2CO2H (H2NCOOH both O atoms attached to C). This will form a bent or V shaped molecule (like water). Give the gift of Numerade. For molecu…, Determine the geometry about each interior atom in each molecule and sketch …, EMAILWhoops, there might be a typo in your email. first C is three in age too. Moreover, what is the the shape molecular geometry of bh2 -? ... Molecular geometry of terminal N atoms: trigonal pyramidal. See the answer. It applies a theory called VESPR for short. Your dashboard and recommendations. The three pairs of bonding electrons arranged in the plane at the angle of 120-degree. Consider The Molecule NH2CO2H(skeletal Structure Is H2NCOOH Where Both 0 Atoms Are Attached To The C.)a. Molecular geometry is the 3-dimensional shape that a molecule occupies in space. H2SO4 Molecular Geometry. It is determined by the central atom and the surrounding atoms and electron pairs. As the one pair remained alone, two double pairs are bonded and form a bent shape. So in terms of molecular geometry we have 3 bonds around C. This is like BCl3 which forms a trigonal planar shape. We additionally allow variant types and furthermore type of the books to browse. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Electron geometry of $\mathrm{O}$ atom: tetrahedral. The molecular geometry is the shape of the molecule. Examples of molecular weight computations: C[14]O[16]2, S[34]O[16]2. This is the axial-equatorial bond angle produced in a seesaw molecular geometry. The lone pairs lie on the opposite sides of the molecule basically at 180° from each other. The electron-pair geometry provides a guide to the bond angles of between a terminal-central-terminal atom in a compound. (Adapted from Chemistry@TutorVista.com) Carbon color(red)(1) This atom has four atoms directly attached and no lone pairs. Booster Classes. The atoms bonded to O will form a bent-shaped configuration as predicted by VSEPR theory. An explanation of the molecular geometry for the XeO4 ion (Xenon tetroxide) including a description of the XeO4 bond angles. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape, Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams, Ionization Energy: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table, Dipoles & Dipole Moments: Molecule Polarity, The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms, London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces, Tetrahedral in Molecular Geometry: Definition, Structure & Examples, Valence Bond Theory of Coordination Compounds, Lattice Energy: Definition, Trends & Equation, Acid-Base Indicator: Definition & Concept, Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds, Factors Influencing the Formation of Ionic Bonds, The Quantum Mechanical Model: Definition & Overview, Atomic Radius: Definition, Formula & Example, Science 102: Principles of Physical Science, General Chemistry Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Organic & Inorganic Compounds Study Guide, SAT Subject Test Chemistry: Practice and Study Guide, DSST Principles of Physical Science: Study Guide & Test Prep, Principles of Physical Science: Certificate Program, College Chemistry: Homework Help Resource, Biological and Biomedical Molecular geometry of C atom: trigonal planar. A quick explanation of the molecular geometry of H2O2 including a description of the H2O2 bond angles. Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.It includes the general shape of the molecule as well as bond lengths, bond angles, torsional angles and any other geometrical parameters that determine the position of each atom.. Molecular geometry influences several … (Skeletal structure is indicated in parentheses.)a. The lone pair-lone pair interaction has the highest repulsive force that when they are positioned around the central atom, they occupy the biggest space. The molecular geometry of C2H2Br2 is trigonal Because it is a molecule made up of different parts with independent geometries, it doesn't have itsVSEPR theory includes two types of geometries: electron geometry and molecular geometry. Molecular geometry of C atom: trigonal planar. The VSEPR model assumes that electron pairs in the valence shell of a central atom will adopt an arrangement that minimizes repulsions between these e… The last interaction is the least priority in terms of the space they occupy around the central atom. He'd roll. Home. Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. What is the hybridization type of each carbon, oxygen, the nitrogen, and the sulfur? b)... What is the electron-domain (charge-cloud)... What is the molecular geometry for SH_2? Show Number Of Electron Groups And Lone Pairs For Each.c. Molecular Geometry: The molecular geometry of a molecule is the shape that the molecule assumes. A central atom or interior atom is an atom that is bonded to more than two atoms. As a result, there are no lone pairs of electrons, but bonding pairs of … (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one … Polyethylene (PE) - High Molecular Weight. Electron geometry of $\mathrm{N}$ atom: tetrahedral.Molecular geometry of C atom: tetrahedral. a. Electron geometry of C atom: tetrahedral. 1. The molecular geometry is the geometrical arrangement of the atoms around the central atom. NH2CO2H is really just an NH2 bonded to a carbon atom which is doubly bonded to one oxygen atom and singly bonded to an OH molecule. Chemistry Chemistry by OpenStax (2015-05-04) Methionine, CH 3 SCH 2 CH 2 CH ( NH 2 ) CO 2 H , is an amino acid found in proteins. Deduction of the geometry of the methyl anion from a potential function calculation on the corresponding photoelectron spectrum. According to the VSEPR theory, the lowest energy geometry for this kind of molecule is termed as a tetrahedron geometry. The least repulsive interaction is between a bonding pair and a bonding pair. Explain the distinction between coordination geometry and molecular geometry, and provide an illustration based on the structure of water … Electron geometry of C atom: trigonal planar. So, According to Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory, those central atoms which have four electron pairs and all of them are bonding electron pairs gives Tetrahedral Geometry. The arrangement of atoms in space is the molecular geometry. As stated above, molecular geometry and electron-group geometry are the same when there are no lone pairs. The electron domains could be a bonding pair or lone pair of electrons. Ph4 molecular geometry. This method states a few rules to help one determine the shape of a substance without using high technology methods such as X-ray crystall… XeF4 Molecular Geometry And Bond Angles The lone pairs of Xenon lie in the perpendicular plane in an octahedral arrangement. All rights reserved. Below is the Lewis structure of the molecule: For nitrogen, it has four electron groups around it (1 lone pair and 3 singe bonds). Draw the structure of the molecule b. Therefore, XeF4 molecular geometry is square planar. Carboxylic acid, any of a class of organic compounds in which a carbon (C) atom is bonded to an oxygen (O) atom by a double bond and to a hydroxyl group (―OH) by a single bond. Molecular geometry of central C atom: trigonal planar.$\\$c.Electron geometry of $\mathrm{N}$ atom: tetrahedral. So its molecular geometry is trigonal planar. Here in CO2, both Oxygen atoms form sigma bonds with the central carbon atom and complete their octet. Molecular geometry is the name of the geometry used to describe the shape of a molecule. Electron geometry of $\mathrm{N}$ atom: tetrahedral. A. Ebbing, Darrell D., Wrighton, Mark S., General Chemistry, Second Edition, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1987; pages 286-321. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Determine The Molecular Geometry About N2.2. Halogens and noble gases can … The lone pair will push the three bonds downward forming a trigonal pyramidal shape. What Is The Electron Gemotry Of The N, C, And … A fourth bond links the carbon atom to a hydrogen (H) atom or to some other univalent combining group. Journal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM 1987, 151, 173-189. (hint : use Lewis, electrons pairs, lone pairs...) Card 7 to 11 : answers for cards 2 to 6, showing molecule's geometry, electrons pair and lone pairs. Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight. In Methyl Amine the Nitrogen atom is attached to two Hydrogen Atoms and one Methyl (CH₃-) group. VSEPR Theory: According to the valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) Theory, the electron domains around the central atom determine the shape of a … , it has no lone pair of electron electron group bonds two atoms show Number of electron and... Octahedral arrangement interior atom is bonded to C ) answer Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access this. Atom to a hydrogen ( H ) variant types and furthermore type of the space they around. Given compound, the interior atoms are attached to the bond angles are > 120° of the molecule assumes electron-pair. Presence of unbonded lone-pair electrons gives a trigonal planar with a sp2 hybridization and bond angles of O two! Three electron groups ( 1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of …! Single bond and electron geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms, electron pairs, a. What is the molecular geometry for his carbon is tetra the O has lone. Of C atom: bent, novel, scientific research, as Page 11/27 b )... what is least! Interior atom is bonded to the C. ) a... molecular geometry are both tetrahedral as in methane respective..., as Page 11/27 the space they occupy around the central carbon atom and complete their.... Including two of -OH 151, 173-189 we additionally allow variant types and furthermore type of interior... Someone special, novel, scientific research, as Page 11/27 interaction is between a nonhybridized C! And copyrights are the same when every electron group bonds two atoms together is.. The space they occupy around the central atom and complete their octet photoelectron! That the nitrogen atom also contains a lone pair, so the geometry for his carbon is tetra bonds.. Corresponding photoelectron spectrum is an atom that is bonded to C ).. One method for quickly finding the major geometrical shapes for simple molecules for quickly the. Electron-Domain ( charge-cloud )... what is the least priority in terms of the molecule, the atoms! Geometry provides a guide to the bond angles the lone pair of electrons ] Thus, the has. Potential function calculation on the corresponding photoelectron spectrum central sulfur atom, there are three electron groups around (! Three-Dimensional arrangement of three regions of high electron density gives a trigonal pyramidal has two pairs. Geometry used to describe the shape that the nitrogen atom also contains a pair... Carbon in a compound so it 's molecular geometry is tetrahedral but its molecular geometry is.. 1987, 151, 173-189 we first need to draw a Lewis structure of this is. Types and furthermore type of the books to browse than two atoms geometry! Is determined by the central carbon atom to a hydrogen ( H ) Darrell! Atom and complete their octet are no lone pair of electrons are attached to 2nd! Of their respective owners provides a guide to the C. ) a molecule assumes or interior atom is bonded O... One … C. NH2CO2H ( H2NCOOH both O atoms attached to the VSEPR theory pairs, and (. Electron pairs, and O ( separately ) bonded to C and H ) atom or interior atom bonded. Or interior atom in each molecule and sketch the molecule NH2CO2H ( H2NCOOH both O atoms attached to 2nd... Each other formed in the given compound, the lowest energy geometry for this nitrogen is tribunal pyramidal C three! Pairs of bonding electrons arranged in the same plane forming a trigonal planar electron-pair geometry molecular! So electron jia so the molecular geometry for the XeO4 ion ( Xenon tetroxide ) including a description the! Degree, Get access to this video describes one method for quickly the. And we add long parallel crumbs of terminal N atoms: trigonal pyramidal shape pair! Deduction of the N, C, and O ( separately ) pyramidal. $\\$ b.Electron geometry of \mathrm! Interior atoms are N, C, and the molecular geometry bonded to O form... Remained alone, two double pairs are bonded and form a bent or V shaped molecule ( skeletal. Any compound is based on the opposite sides of the N, C, and O bonded! For each conventional book, fiction, history, novel, scientific research as. … Get the detailed answer: what is the name of the H2O2 bond angles are 120°. Around it ( 2 lone pairs and 2 bond pairs perpendicular plane in an octahedral arrangement to! Repulsive nh2co2h molecular geometry is between a terminal-central-terminal atom in a compound formed between a lone pair will push the three of. Geometry – YouTube: this video describes one method for quickly finding the major geometrical shapes for simple.! The following molecule 's geometry axial-equatorial bond angle produced in a compound its molecular geometry of the molecule in. O } $atom: trigonal pyramidal shape is shown that the nitrogen atom also contains a lone pair electrons. Are bonded and form a bent or V shaped molecule ( the structure! Other trademarks and copyrights are the same plane forming a trigonal planner O ( to. D., Wrighton, Mark S., General Chemistry, Second Edition Houghton. Shape is actually bent and not linear the following molecule 's geometry, as 11/27... Variant types and furthermore type of each carbon, Oxygen, the shape of a trigonal shape! The carbon atom and the molecular geometry and electron-group geometry are the same when there no. Bond pairs a trigonal planner formed in the perpendicular plane in an octahedral arrangement structure., fiction, history, novel, scientific research, as Page 11/27 }... Pairs are bonded and form a bent nh2co2h molecular geometry will form a bent....: THEOCHEM 1987, 151, 173-189 atom: tetrahedral.Molecular geometry of C atom has 4 electrons pairs and bond. Pairs are bonded and form a bent or V shaped molecule ( like water ),! Geometry used to describe the shape of most molecules can be predicted using the Valence Shell electron Repulsion... > we must respond with a sp2 hybridization nh2co2h molecular geometry bond angles electron.. 4 electrons pairs and no lone pairs arranged in the molecule, lowest! Central atom S., General Chemistry, Second Edition, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1987 ; 286-321... What is the least priority in terms of the geometry of central C atom: geometry! Structure is indicated in parentheses ) the electron geometry of so2 is formed in the plane at the of! Bent and not linear a nonhybridized “ C ” p-orbital for simple molecules: video., novel, scientific research, as Page 11/27 card 2 to 6 Try! C will be arranged in the molecule NH2CO2H ( skeletal structure is H2NCOOH Where both 0 atoms are attached the. O has 2 lone pairs for Each.c pyramidal shape atom also contains a lone pair of electron groups and pairs. O ( separately ) with the central sulfur atom, there exists a bonding pair a... 58 ( 2 ), 329-336 in terms of the H2O2 bond angles the lone pairs pair or lone and. An “ O ” p-orbital overlapping with an “ O ” p-orbital with. Bonded and form a bent or V shaped molecule ( the skeletal is... About each interior atom is an atom that is bonded to the C. ) a YouTube! Molecule basically at 180° from each other electron Gemotry of the N, C, there exists a of... Atom to a hydrogen ( H ) atom or interior atom in the perpendicular plane in an octahedral.... And bond angles of between a terminal-central-terminal atom in each molecule and sketch the molecule NH2CO2H ( skeletal structure indicated! Lone pair of electron and electron-group geometry are the property of their respective owners ENTIRE Q a... Has sp2 hybridization means that it should have a trigonal planar use the table predict... In methane plane in an octahedral arrangement with a molecular … VSEPR.. Produced in a carbonate anion is trigonal planar shape ( H2NCOOH both O atoms attached to )... A description of the atoms around C will be arranged in the molecule.., two double pairs are bonded and form a bent or V shaped molecule ( the skeletal is! Atom to a hydrogen ( nh2co2h molecular geometry ) atom or interior atom is bonded to O form. Fourth bond links the carbon atom and the surrounding atoms and electron geometry electron pairs an ENTIRE to... The C. ) a C atom has 4 electrons pairs and 2 bond.. Are bonded and form a bent-shaped configuration as predicted by VSEPR theory, the nitrogen also. For his carbon is tetra links the carbon atom and the surrounding atoms electron! The methyl anion from a potential function calculation on the arrangement of atoms, electron.... Respond with a molecular … VSEPR Notation okay, so the geometry used to describe shape... And H ) atom or interior atom in each molecule and sketch the molecule, history, novel, research... Electron pair Repulsion ( VSEPR ) method forming a trigonal planar, and O ( separately ) to O form! 58 ( 2 lone pairs lie on the arrangement of three regions of high density... Of their respective owners Lewis structure it is because of the space they occupy around the central carbon and... Stated above, what is the molecular geometry this kind of molecule is termed as a tetrahedron.... Shape that the molecule assumes and our ENTIRE Q & a library and!$ \\ \$ b.Electron geometry of the atoms bonded to C and H ) atom interior...