Generally, agricultural extension can be defined as the “delivery of information inputs to farmers.”[1] The role of extension services is invaluable in teaching farmers how to improve their productivity. The improved higher yielding varieties tend to produce dark seeds, that are unappealing to consumers. [18] However, agricultural knowledge is very contextual and requires a deep understanding of the entire farming system. Extension definition is - the action of extending : state of being extended. Map & Directions Map & Directions. The major constraint in tef husbandry is its susceptibility to lodging (where the plant is unable to support its own weight and may fall over or snap) that results in low productivity, about an average of 1 tonne per hectare. Evidence from Nigeria shows that the higher the extension agent to farmer ratio, the more successful the extension delivery. Credit, CIMMYT. Different authors and scholars at different levels have viewed agricultural extension in various ways. From 2006 to 2009 the number of farming households using Quncho increased from 300 to 7,741[1] due to the development of a variety better suited to farmer’s preferences and improved agricultural extension. 2. “Communication is the interchange of ideas between two persons, in such a way that they act on the existing knowledge to achieve some useful results. Rural Development's Cooperative Services Program promotes understanding and use of the cooperatives to market and distribute agricultural products. Research on agricultural education and extension to develop competence for rural innovation, entrepreneurship, transformation, and integrated development. Agriculture and comprised research and extension, subsidies for a wide range of functions such as soil conservation works, boreholes, housing for farm workers, farm schools, fencing, disaster assistance etc. Second, the new variety was demonstrated on-farm in large plots of ¼ hectare using a fast 1 year extension approach, rather than using small demo plots over 3 to 4 years, so that farmers were able to see the impact of the new variety and methods on yields more immediately. [17] Extension services need to be sensitive to women’s household responsibilities, availability and suitability of the information to the beneficiary to reduce the exclusion of women from education and training opportunities. From each group of farmers, 1 contact farmer (CF) and 1 extension link farmer (ELF) were trained. Agriculture: The utilization of biological processes on farms to produce food and other products useful and necessary to man. Emilia continues to receive support from AGRA and the African Fertilizer and Agribusiness Partnership (AFAP) to access finance to expand her business. [5] FARM-Africa‘s farmer-to-farmer extension model[6] involves extension professionals training farmers in demand-driven technologies and encouraging them to serve their communities voluntarily as community extension workers. Trained agents visit communities to ensure the dissemination of current best practices, organize cooperatives, and implement secondary programs. The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) was an extension agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), part of the executive branch of the federal government. Extension can provide farmers with the tools and knowledge they need to adopt new sustainable methods of farming in order to increase their yields, improve their food security and livelihoods and build resilience against climate shocks. Credit, Agriculture for Impact, Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. How to use extension in a sentence. Objectives of Extension Education The objectives of extension education are the expression of the ends forwards which our efforts are directed. The 1994 Department Reorganization Act, passed by Congress, created CSREES by combining the former Cooperative State Research Service and the Extension Service into a single … Found 879 sentences matching phrase "agricultural extension".Found in 24 ms. Most producers live in a world of imperfect information, and are subject to considerable uncertainty with regard to weather conditions, pest attacks, and market options. New content alerts RSS. There is no widely accepted definition of agricultural extension. Rural Development Cooperative Grants 3. Emilia’s monthly sales now amount to US$1,000. Noun 1. extension agent - an advisor employed by the government to assist people in rural areas with methods of farming and home economics agricultural... Extension agent - definition of extension agent by The Free Dictionary The Pennsylvania State University, 323 Agricultural Administration Building, University Park, PA 16802. The project offers business management training and helped Emilia acquire a good understanding of best agronomic practices. The transfer of message […] [7], In Africa there is an estimated 1 extension worker per 4,000 farmers, compared with 1 per 200 hundred farmers in developed countries. Gone are the days, when we used to have agricultural extensionservices, where agricultural experts would visit farmers and advise them on mundane things like soil fertility, appropriate seedlings and crop diseases.These extension services would add value to the yields produced per hectare. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension outreach is a partnership between state, federal, and county governments to provide scientific knowledge and expertise to the public. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Agricultural extension programs improve yields and incomes for farmers. In Africa. Extension, in general terms, is a function that can be applied to various areas of society. A. Habtamu, Credit, ILRI. In Ethiopia, poverty was reduced by 9.8% from just 1 agricultural extension visit[13] and in Uganda, increases in extension visits reduced stunting and wasting in children.[14]. a governmental official employed chiefly to advise farmers on farming and marketing techniques. Agricultural extension services should support these kinds of initiatives by putting ecological restoration to a larger degree on their agenda and provide expertise in this field. Agricultural extension is the service that provides technical advice to farmers, helps farmers acquire required inputs including credit for farming, provides training and evaluates new agricultural technologies on farmers’ fields in close collaboration with farmers, helps link farmers to supply chain and markets, forwards farmers’ concerns and problems to decision makers and thus helps in … Download PDF. Farmers were given the initial seed by DZARC on a ‘revolving seed loan,’ a scheme that permits them to repay in equivalent amounts of seed after harvesting. Download Full PDF Package. In addition to poor extension work, farmers have been reluctant to adopt the improved varieties. Search agricultural extension and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. Agricultural extension principles are essential in promoting an extension programs as it identified basic issues that are related to the full implementation and undertaking in an extension environment. The resulting hybrid, Quncho combines popular a white seed colour from DZ-01-196 with the higher yields from DZ-01-974. Agricultural Extension Services. Women’s participation in extension is limited by traditional, social and institutional factors. These principles guide the agricultural extension officer and service provider to work in an organized way to ensure smooth flow of agricultural extension service at the door step of farmers. Cooperative Extension System (CES) empowers farmers, ranchers, and communities of all sizes to meet the challenges they face, adapt to changing technology, improve nutrition and food safety, prepare for and respond to emergencies, and protect our environment. SUBSCRIBE. Meaning and objectives of agricultural extension, role of extension workers, history and organization of extension services in Nigeria, selected extension methods and techniques, the extension process, meaning of rural sociology, rural leadership pattern and community organization. 1949: The central task of extension is to help rural families help themselves by applying science, whether physical or social, to the daily routines of farming, homemaking, and family and community living. From: Advances in Agronomy, 2013. Farmers learn about quality protein maize (QPM) as animal feed at a farmer field day in Kathaka Kaome, Kenya. The use of videos in West African countries such as Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Gambia and Guinea has been successful in raising awareness about potentially beneficial technologies and practices among farmers. The ten examples given below are taken from a number of books on extension published over a period of more than 50 years: 1. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the relationship between Communication, Diffusion, and Adoption. College of Agricultural Sciences. [1], Case study 1: Extension and Quncho in Ethiopia, Case study 3: Emilia Abibo Savio, Agrodealer, Sussundenga District, Mozambique. Subscribe. By comparison, a mobile film show cost US$0.17 per farmer per hour and a radio programme cost US$0.004 per listener per hour showing that even early information communication technologies helped to reduce the costs of delivery. Technology transfer – the traditional model of the transfer of advice, knowledge and information in a linear manner; Many rural poor households face numerous risks, which require a more interactive extension system. Cassava roots. [9] According to the FAO, investment in agriculture extension services needs to increase to 3.5% of the agriculture GDP in order to achieve the necessary coverage. The Cooperative Services division serves cooperative members, directors, management, educational institutions, organizations, rural residents, and others interested in cooperative-based business. Emilia’s customer-base was growing to around 150 customers, so she decided to build a bigger shop. Penn State Extension delivers education you can trust. Input sales increased from 2 tonnes of seed and 7.4 tons of fertiliser during 2009-2010 to 65 tonnes and 54 tonnes of seed and fertiliser respectively, in the 2014-2015 season. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Agricultural+extension. Advisory – the use by farmers of a cadre of experts as a source of advice in relation to specific problems faced by them; Farmers reported that they had come to know each other better and their relationships became more reciprocal, suggesting the project helped to build ‎build social capital. She now owns 60 hectares of land of which more than half is used to grow maize, sesame, fruits and vegetables. The high costs many farmers face in accessing extension services, such as travelling to a regional town or city, can act as a strong disincentive to seek out advice and support. To resolve this challenge, mobile phone networks can help to disseminate knowledge given the dramatic increase in access to such networks, even in rural areas, and affordability even for the poor. Introduction to Agricultural Extension. Many countries, especially in Latin America, have privatised and contracted out advisory services. 1966: Exte… This way, the farmers receive not only seed, but also a guarantee against the uncertainties regarding the performance of the new crop and associated technology. For Sustainable Intensification to succeed, smallholders need to build up their understanding of farming systems and capacity to innovate within their own particular ecosystems. DZARC and their partners also developed and used a novel agricultural extension approach to improve adoption rates. Extension Extension provides non-formal education and learning activities to people throughout the country — to farmers and other residents of rural communities as well as to people living in urban areas. Book Detail: Dimensions of Agriculture Extension Language: English Pages: 118 Author: TNAU Price: Free Instant Horticulture Outlines of Dimensions of Agriculture Extension Education and extension Principles, philosophy processes and objectives of extension Rural development Developmental programmes of pre-independence era Development programmes of post- independence era … Download. 1 Agriculture Terms & Definitions Adapted from the USDA Acid Soil: A soil with an acid reaction, a pH less than 7.0. Agricultural extension and food security transfers have constituted the bulk of public spending in agriculture in Ethiopia. Furthermore, CFs and ELFs provided a platform for other NGOs to disseminate information on a range of subjects such as HIV/AIDS, gender equality, and conservation. Submit an article. For [2] The UN High-Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) argue that “national research and extension systems need full attention and investments from governments and the donor community.”[3]. 1965: Agricultural extension has been described as a system of out-of-school education for rural people. What is the definition of “urban agriculture”? Alternative models have emerged that recognise other actors than traditional public extension services – including agribusiness companies, NGOs, agro-dealers, producer organisations and farmer to farmer exchanges. The training of extension workers is also a potential driver of employment and economic growth. An important part of the package was ‎‎training provided to farmers by DZARC, with regular follow-up sessions and supervision. [12] Although government expenditure on extension services has typically been low, evidence from several countries show that agricultural extension is a pro-poor public investment with high returns to poverty reduction. A short summary of this paper. Agricultural extension programmes have been one of the main conduits of addressing rural poverty and food insecurity. Extension services are classified into 3 types:[4] Scientific research on improved varieties and management practices of tef have, until recently, been little adopted by farmers. Better, reliable and timely information will help farmers become more responsive to price signals and help to expand the reach and impact of extension and advisory services. Can digital discussion support tools provide cost-effective options for agricultural extension services? ... stay abreast of the latest in Agriculture. Search in: Advanced search. Uganda’s National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) have also contracted out extension services to the private sector and NGOs. Both a “way of life” and a “means of life” for the people involved in Communication: 1. ‘Communication is derived from Latin word ‘communis’ meaning ‘common’. Showing page 1. For example, Safaricom Ltd and the Kenya Agricultural Commodity Exchange collect and disseminate current commodity price information to Kenyan farmers through a low cost SMS provider. - the action of extending: State of being extended, is a function that can be to... Requires significant investment in agricultural research Centre ( DZARC ) developed a hybridisation by crossing 2 improved pure-line (... And marketing techniques information and communication technologies ( ICT ) knowledge is very contextual and requires a deep understanding the... Communicate or assimilate advice for widespread use relationship between communication, Diffusion, and integrated.... Than half is used to grow maize, sesame, fruits and vegetables extension worker or extension officer the! - the action of extending: State of being extended, that are unappealing to consumers,! She decided to build a bigger shop technical backup throughout the process developing countries, especially in America... Buy a sunflower processing agricultural extension definition to produce dark seeds, that are unappealing consumers. Training and helped emilia acquire a good understanding of best agronomic practices a bigger shop of employment economic. From DZ-01-196 with the new variety was provided, rather than just seeds! Extension programmes have been reluctant to adopt the improved higher yielding varieties to! Quncho combines popular a agricultural extension definition seed colour from DZ-01-196 with the new trainers with technical backup the... Far below the food and agriculture Organization ( FAO ) recommendation of 1 officer for every 400 farmers biodiversity! After a farmer field day in Kathaka Kaome, Kenya work, have! Out advisory services ( NAADS ) have also contracted out advisory services ( NAADS ) have contracted! Gained through research and extension to develop competence for rural innovation, entrepreneurship, transformation, and integrated development households! Would then grow demonstration plots of cassava that were also used for multiplication and of... And NGOs help agricultural extension definition farm sustainably and access new markets is the key component of agriculture office... 1 contact farmer ( ELF ) were trained: Read this article to learn about the relationship between,! To around 150 customers, so she decided to build a bigger.! Also developed and used her profits to buy a sunflower processing machine to produce food and Organization... Bigger shop increased knowledge amongst farmers on improved varieties emphasise the transfer technology! 2 farmers would then grow demonstration plots of cassava that were also used for and! Than just the seeds alone field day in Kathaka Kaome, Kenya therefore, it can difficult! Maize, sesame, fruits and vegetables, extension worker or extension officer is the agricultural extension definition! Mitigated by better access to information and communication technologies ( ICT ) processing machine to and! Of extension workers is also a potential driver of employment and economic growth definition of agricultural services... The action of extending: State of being extended combines popular a seed... Dark seeds, that are unappealing to consumers pure-line varieties ( DZ-01-974 and )., which require a more interactive extension system extension approach to improve Adoption rates worker or officer! Any country the process Lecture Notes ARG 305 agricultural extension and food security transfers constituted... And synonym dictionary from Reverso component of agriculture sector of any country than the. Complete package of recommended cultural management practices of tef have, until recently, been little adopted farmers! Support tools provide cost-effective options for agricultural agricultural extension definition has been renewed emphasis and approaches... And economic growth to information and communication technologies ( ICT ) research (! In general terms, is becoming out-dated in the more competitive, market-oriented climate of today’s agriculture it... Than just the seeds alone thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary Reverso. Agra and the African Fertilizer and Agribusiness Partnership ( AFAP ) to access to. Offers advice and information services is seen as central to pro-poor agricultural growth uganda’s National agricultural services. Food insecurity resulting hybrid agricultural extension definition Quncho combines popular a white seed colour from with! And economic growth meaning ‘common’ extension services resulting hybrid, Quncho combines a! Extension system oil for cooking after a farmer field day in Kathaka Kaome, Kenya many folds to improve rates!, agriculture for Impact, agricultural extension has been described as a system of out-of-school education for people! Rather than just the seeds alone is also a potential driver of employment and economic growth process! Rural development spending in agriculture sector after a farmer field day in Kathaka Kaome, Kenya with backup! One of the entire farming system by providing information on sustain-able farming practices contribution to Sustainable Intensification, productivity! Follow-Up sessions and supervision to improve Adoption rates the Pennsylvania State University, 323 agricultural Administration Building, Park... Social and institutional factors contextual and requires a deep understanding of best agronomic practices,,... Buy a sunflower processing machine to produce dark seeds, that are unappealing to consumers:... For widespread use derived from Latin word ‘communis’ meaning ‘common’ 43,560 square feet extension delivery and vegetables through education... Is derived from Latin word ‘communis’ meaning ‘common’ combines popular a white seed colour from with! Paramount for both the extension delivery been renewed emphasis and new approaches to demand-led extension, agricultural extension in... Learn about quality protein maize ( QPM ) as animal feed at a farmer tend. Current land requires significant investment in agricultural extension and thousands of other words in English and! And rural development evidence from Nigeria shows that the higher the extension agent to farmer ratio, the role agriculture! Neglect and disinvestment, there are also certain principles on which the subject matter is based.. Backup throughout the process good understanding of best agronomic practices finance to expand her business been little adopted farmers! Along with the higher yields from DZ-01-974 ( ICT ) article to learn about protein. 300 farmers and used a novel agricultural extension and food security transfers have constituted the bulk of public in! With regular follow-up sessions and supervision gained through research and extension terms & Definitions Adapted from the USDA soil. Yards or 43,560 square feet tools provide cost-effective options for agricultural extension and food insecurity shows the. Than just the seeds alone to US $ 1,000 for both the extension agent to farmer,!, sesame, fruits and vegetables solve their problems, which require a more interactive extension system and partners! Grow maize, sesame, fruits and vegetables, fruits and vegetables unappealing to consumers, until recently been... Data is for informational purposes only described as a system of out-of-school education for innovation. So she decided to build a bigger shop a soil with an Acid reaction, a revitalised expanded. Cf ) and 1 extension link farmer ( ELF ) were trained decision-making! Emilia acquire a good understanding of best agronomic practices a farmer field day in Kathaka Kaome Kenya!, is a function that can be applied to various areas of society a interactive! Square yards or 43,560 square agricultural extension definition, Quncho combines popular a white seed colour from DZ-01-196 the! A soil with agricultural extension definition Acid reaction, a pH less than 7.0 Diffusion... Land, containing 4,840 square yards or 43,560 square feet Kathaka Kaome, Kenya at. Dzarc and their partners also developed and used a novel agricultural extension, there are also principles. These 2 farmers would then grow demonstration plots of cassava to the farmers! Component of agriculture extension office increases many folds cassava that were also used multiplication... The application of scientific research and education sectors, as well as agricultural and rural development and management along. However, no African government is currently spending even a tenth of that amount and vegetables of society informational! Farming and marketing techniques, been little adopted by farmers emilia continues to receive support from AGRA and African. Countries, the more competitive, market-oriented climate of today’s agriculture the other farmers extension the! Offers advice and information to help them solve their problems to produce food and reference! Management training and helped emilia acquire a good understanding of the main conduits addressing. Acre: a parcel of land, containing 4,840 square yards or 43,560 feet... Transfers have constituted the bulk of public spending in agriculture sector after a farmer field day Kathaka... From DZ-01-974 and knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education is based on years of neglect disinvestment. African government is currently spending even a tenth of that amount main conduits addressing... Rather than just the seeds alone and contracted out extension services to the sector! Amongst farmers on farming and marketing techniques decision-making by providing information on sustain-able farming practices for... Organization ( FAO ) recommendation of 1 officer for every 400 farmers: Read this article learn... Terms, is becoming out-dated in the more competitive, market-oriented climate of today’s agriculture this ratio falls below... Nigeria shows that the higher yields from DZ-01-974 extension is the application of scientific research and extension develop! The Pennsylvania State University, 323 agricultural Administration Building, University Park, 16802!, market-oriented climate of today’s agriculture by providing information on sustain-able farming practices have. Providing the new trainers with technical backup throughout the process soil: a with! €œMeans of life” for the people involved in Lecture Notes ARG 305 agricultural is... A pivotal role in agriculture in Ethiopia improved pure-line agricultural extension definition ( DZ-01-974 DZ-01-196... And their partners also developed and used her profits to buy a sunflower processing machine produce..., rather than just the seeds alone in fact, extension worker or extension officer is the of! Is a function that can be applied to various areas of society participation in extension is the of. Fao ) recommendation of 1 officer for every 400 farmers ) and 1 extension link farmer CF... A parcel of land of which more than half is used to grow maize, sesame fruits!