Generally, agricultural extension can be defined as the âdelivery of information inputs to farmers.â The role of extension services is invaluable in teaching farmers how to improve their productivity. The improved higher yielding varieties tend to produce dark seeds, that are unappealing to consumers.  However, agricultural knowledge is very contextual and requires a deep understanding of the entire farming system. Extension definition is - the action of extending : state of being extended. Map & Directions Map & Directions. The major constraint in tef husbandry is its susceptibility to lodging (where the plant is unable to support its own weight and may fall over or snap) that results in low productivity, about an average of 1 tonne per hectare. Evidence from Nigeria shows that the higher the extension agent to farmer ratio, the more successful the extension delivery. Credit, CIMMYT. Different authors and scholars at different levels have viewed agricultural extension in various ways. From 2006 to 2009 the number of farming households using Quncho increased from 300 to 7,741 due to the development of a variety better suited to farmerâs preferences and improved agricultural extension. 2. âCommunication is the interchange of ideas between two persons, in such a way that they act on the existing knowledge to achieve some useful results. Rural Development's Cooperative Services Program promotes understanding and use of the cooperatives to market and distribute agricultural products. Research on agricultural education and extension to develop competence for rural innovation, entrepreneurship, transformation, and integrated development. Agriculture and comprised research and extension, subsidies for a wide range of functions such as soil conservation works, boreholes, housing for farm workers, farm schools, fencing, disaster assistance etc. Second, the new variety was demonstrated on-farm in large plots of Â¼ hectare using a fast 1 year extension approach, rather than using small demo plots over 3 to 4 years, so that farmers were able to see the impact of the new variety and methods on yields more immediately.  Extension services need to be sensitive to women’s household responsibilities, availability and suitability of the information to the beneficiary to reduce the exclusion of women from education and training opportunities. From each group of farmers, 1 contact farmer (CF) and 1 extension link farmer (ELF) were trained. Agriculture: The utilization of biological processes on farms to produce food and other products useful and necessary to man. Emilia continues to receive support from AGRA and theÂ African Fertilizer and Agribusiness Partnership (AFAP) to access finance to expand her business.  FARM-Africa‘sÂ farmer-to-farmer extensionÂ model involves extension professionals training farmers in demand-driven technologies and encouraging them to serve their communities voluntarily as community extension workers. Trained agents visit communities to ensure the dissemination of current best practices, organize cooperatives, and implement secondary programs. The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) was an extension agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), part of the executive branch of the federal government. Extension can provide farmers with the tools and knowledge they need to adopt new sustainable methods of farming in order to increase their yields, improve their food security and livelihoods and build resilience against climate shocks. Credit, Agriculture for Impact, Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and knowledge to agricultural practices throughÂ farmerÂ education. How to use extension in a sentence. Objectives of Extension Education The objectives of extension education are the expression of the ends forwards which our efforts are directed. The 1994 Department Reorganization Act, passed by Congress, created CSREES by combining the former Cooperative State Research Service and the Extension Service into a single â¦ Found 879 sentences matching phrase "agricultural extension".Found in 24 ms. Most producers live in a world of imperfect information, and are subject to considerable uncertainty with regard to weather conditions, pest attacks, and market options. New content alerts RSS. There is no widely accepted definition of agricultural extension. Rural Development Cooperative Grants 3. Emiliaâs monthly sales now amount to US$1,000. Noun 1. extension agent - an advisor employed by the government to assist people in rural areas with methods of farming and home economics agricultural... Extension agent - definition of extension agent by The Free Dictionary The Pennsylvania State University, 323 Agricultural Administration Building, University Park, PA 16802. The project offers business management training and helped Emilia acquire a good understanding of best agronomic practices. The transfer of message [â¦] , In Africa there is an estimated 1 extension worker per 4,000 farmers, compared with 1 per 200 hundred farmers in developed countries. Gone are the days, when we used to have agricultural extensionservices, where agricultural experts would visit farmers and advise them on mundane things like soil fertility, appropriate seedlings and crop diseases.These extension services would add value to the yields produced per hectare. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension outreach is a partnership between state, federal, and county governments to provide scientific knowledge and expertise to the public. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Agricultural extension programs improve yields and incomes for farmers. In Africa. Extension, in general terms, is a function that can be applied to various areas of society. A. Habtamu, Credit, ILRI. In Ethiopia, poverty was reduced by 9.8% from just 1 agricultural extension visit and in Uganda, increases in extension visits reduced stunting and wasting in children.. a governmental official employed chiefly to advise farmers on farming and marketing techniques. Agricultural extension services should support these kinds of initiatives by putting ecological restoration to a larger degree on their agenda and provide expertise in this field. Agricultural extension is the service that provides technical advice to farmers, helps farmers acquire required inputs including credit for farming, provides training and evaluates new agricultural technologies on farmersâ fields in close collaboration with farmers, helps link farmers to supply chain and markets, forwards farmersâ concerns and problems to decision makers and thus helps in â¦ Download PDF. Farmers were given the initial seed by DZARC on a ârevolving seed loan,â a scheme that permits them to repay in equivalent amounts of seed after harvesting. Download Full PDF Package. In addition to poor extension work, farmers have been reluctant to adopt the improved varieties. Search agricultural extension and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. Agricultural extension principles are essential in promoting an extension programs as it identified basic issues that are related to the full implementation and undertaking in an extension environment. The resulting hybrid, Quncho combines popular a white seed colour from DZ-01-196 with the higher yields from DZ-01-974. Agricultural Extension Services. Women’s participation in extension is limited by traditional, social and institutional factors. These principles guide the agricultural extension officer and service provider to work in an organized way to ensure smooth flow of agricultural extension service at the door step of farmers. Cooperative Extension System (CES) empowers farmers, ranchers, and communities of all sizes to meet the challenges they face, adapt to changing technology, improve nutrition and food safety, prepare for and respond to emergencies, and protect our environment. SUBSCRIBE. Meaning and objectives of agricultural extension, role of extension workers, history and organization of extension services in Nigeria, selected extension methods and techniques, the extension process, meaning of rural sociology, rural leadership pattern and community organization. 1949: The central task of extension is to help rural families help themselves by applying science, whether physical or social, to the daily routines of farming, homemaking, and family and community living. From: Advances in Agronomy, 2013. Farmers learn about quality protein maize (QPM) as animal feed at a farmer field day in Kathaka Kaome, Kenya. The use of videos in West African countries such as Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Gambia and Guinea has been successful in raising awareness about potentially beneficial technologies and practices among farmers. The ten examples given below are taken from a number of books on extension published over a period of more than 50 years: 1. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the relationship between Communication, Diffusion, and Adoption. College of Agricultural Sciences. , Case study 1: Extension and Quncho in Ethiopia, Case study 3: Emilia Abibo Savio, Agrodealer, Sussundenga District, Mozambique. Subscribe. By comparison, a mobile film show cost US$0.17 per farmer per hour and a radio programme cost US$0.004 per listener per hour showing that even early information communication technologies helped to reduce the costs of delivery. Technology transfer â the traditional model of the transfer of advice, knowledge and information in a linear manner; Many rural poor households face numerous risks, which require a more interactive extension system. Cassava roots.  According to the FAO, investment in agriculture extension services needs to increase to 3.5% of the agriculture GDP in order to achieve the necessary coverage. The Cooperative Services division serves cooperative members, directors, management, educational institutions, organizations, rural residents, and others interested in cooperative-based business. Emiliaâs customer-base was growing to around 150 customers, so she decided to build a bigger shop. Penn State Extension delivers education you can trust. Input sales increased from 2 tonnes of seed and 7.4 tons of fertiliser during 2009-2010 to 65 tonnes and 54 tonnes of seed and fertiliser respectively, in the 2014-2015 season. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Agricultural+extension. Advisory â the use by farmers of a cadre of experts as a source of advice in relation to specific problems faced by them; Farmers reported that they had come to know each other better and their relationships became more reciprocal, suggesting the project helped to build âbuild social capital. She now owns 60 hectares of land of which more than half is used to grow maize, sesame, fruits and vegetables. The high costs many farmers face in accessing extension services, such as travelling to a regional town or city, can act as a strong disincentive to seek out advice and support.Â To resolve this challenge, mobile phone networks can help to disseminate knowledge given the dramatic increase in access to such networks, even in rural areas, and affordability even for the poor. Introduction to Agricultural Extension. Many countries, especially in Latin America, have privatised and contracted out advisory services. 1966: Exteâ¦ This way, the farmers receive not only seed, but also a guarantee against the uncertainties regarding the performance of the new crop and associated technology. For Sustainable Intensification to succeed, smallholders need to build up their understanding of farming systems and capacity to innovate within their own particular ecosystems. DZARC and their partners also developed and used a novel agricultural extension approach to improve adoption rates. Extension Extension provides non-formal education and learning activities to people throughout the country â to farmers and other residents of rural communities as well as to people living in urban areas. Book Detail: Dimensions of Agriculture Extension Language: English Pages: 118 Author: TNAU Price: Free Instant Horticulture Outlines of Dimensions of Agriculture Extension Education and extension Principles, philosophy processes and objectives of extension Rural development Developmental programmes of pre-independence era Development programmes of post- independence era â¦ Download. 1 Agriculture Terms & Definitions Adapted from the USDA Acid Soil: A soil with an acid reaction, a pH less than 7.0. Agricultural extension and food security transfers have constituted the bulk of public spending in agriculture in Ethiopia. Furthermore, CFs and ELFs provided a platform for other NGOs to disseminate information on a range of subjects such as HIV/AIDS, gender equality, and conservation. Submit an article. For  The UN High-Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) argue that ânational research and extension systems need full attention and investments from governments and the donor community.â. 1965: Agricultural extension has been described as a system of out-of-school education for rural people. What is the definition of âurban agricultureâ? Alternative models have emerged that recognise other actors than traditional public extension services â including agribusiness companies, NGOs, agro-dealers, producer organisations and farmer to farmer exchanges. The training of extension workers is also a potential driver of employment and economic growth. An important part of the package was ââtraining provided to farmers by DZARC, with regular follow-up sessions and supervision.  Although government expenditure on extension services has typically been low, evidence from several countries show that agricultural extension is a pro-poor public investment with high returns to poverty reduction. A short summary of this paper. Agricultural extension programmes have been one of the main conduits of addressing rural poverty and food insecurity. Extension services are classified into 3 types: Scientific research on improved varieties and management practices of tef have, until recently, been little adopted by farmers. Better, reliable and timely information will help farmers become more responsive to price signals and help to expand the reach and impact of extension and advisory services. Can digital discussion support tools provide cost-effective options for agricultural extension services? ... stay abreast of the latest in Agriculture. Search in: Advanced search. 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